Scientists have discovered that cell division is a reason that makes men more likely to get cancer than women.
For more than 25 years as a doctor, more than half of the brain cancer patients Josh Rubin has ever treated are male. Rubin colleagues at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston and Washington Medical University, St. Louis noticed the same difference.
10 years ago, to make sure that the judgment of himself and his colleagues was not subjective, Rubin turned to national statistics on cancer incidence. “The data show that actually for decades men have more cancer than women,” he said.
Referring to brain tumor is referring to men
Rubin also found that the pathogen development and survival ability was different for men for a range of cancers. In addition to the main types of cancer that only appear in women, such as breast, ovarian, uterine and cervical cancer, there are only a few types of cancer that are more common in women. And when it comes to brain tumors, most people think of men who have the disease.
To find the cause, Rubin and his colleagues did some preliminary research in the lab. By culturing astrocytes (specific star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord) in mice, then treating them with growth factors that stimulate neuroblastoma (glioblastoma) , the team found that the cells taken from male mice changed from healthy to cancer easier than cells in female mice.
The cells in the female mice regress the p53 tumor suppressor protein faster – the function is disordered when certain cancers occur, including glioblastoma. “This difference is truly amazing,” Rubin said.
This can play a big role in men getting more cancer. In the past, it was often thought that the cause was in circulating sex hormones. However, Rubin asserts that the root cause of the problem lies in many other biological factors.
Over the years, researchers have uncovered a number of distinct cell features associated with cancer between men and women. In 2017, a team at Harvard Medical School with MIT identified a number of tumor suppressor genes that are genes that separate from X chromosomes in tumor cells from female patients, so the rate of recovery in women women perform faster than men. Carrying two copies of the X – XX chromosome, the female inhibits the tumor twice as much as the level created from the single X chromosome in men – XY.
Claudine Junien, a geneticist at the University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France, said that women are more protected by the increased levels of tumor suppressor genes. Even in the event that a mutation occurs that disables a gene chromosome, in women there is still a second active X chromosome backup, maintaining the ability to protect against the increase. Abnormal cell proliferation.
However, tumor suppression is only part of this difficult game. Many cancers exhibit a relatively different change in the exchange process between men and women.
When Rubin and his colleagues compared the gene expression in fibroblast carcinoma tissue samples from male and female patients, the sign of glycolysis was predicted by glycolysis (glucozo hydrolysis). The ability to live varies between the sexes.
While men are less likely to live when glycolytis is present in cancer cells, the percentage of females living is virtually unaffected by glycolysis.
Personalized sex in cancer treatment
In 2018, researchers at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and New England-based organizations identified models of regulatory structures for transcriptional activity related to drug metabolism and intimate relationships. to the ability to live in women, but not effectively for men, such as those undergoing colon cancer chemotherapy.
By 2019, in the study of expression markers in glioblastoma, Rubin et al. Further identified gender trends in the way cells are linked to cancer.
In women, viability is linked to the type of gene expression that binds to the integrin signal (a protein that plays an important role for cells that can bind effectively to extracellular substrates). While survival in men correlates with the type of gene expression by regulating the cell cycle.
These findings mirror the results of the team’s standard MRI image analysis. The results show that the survival rate of men can only be predicted from tumor growth rates, while for women can predict both the growth rate and the rate of tumor invasion. The cell cycle clearly connects to proliferation.
In addition, integrins (proteins that help cancer cells bind to the surrounding protein network, allowing them to survive and grow) exhibit cancer cell proliferation through changes in adhesion and cell movement.
“There is no evidence that these facilities are directly related to each other, but there is a definite agreement between them,” Rubin said.
Agreeing with the findings that Rubin offers about cell differences in men and women in influencing cancer risk, Art Arnold – a pioneer physiologist who studies genes and hormones in sex differences Biology at the University of California, Los Angeles admits: The role of gender differences is being more widely understood. “Dr. Rubin’s work involves factors that are worth considering – factors from within the cell itself,” said Arnold.
“Understanding gender differences in cell biology will be the key to developing better cancer treatments,” said Christine Disteche, a geneticist at the University of Washington, Seattle.
Finally, Rubin notes that clinical trials that combine the sexes will not find the optimal treatment for both. “In an age when people like to talk about personalized medicine (preventive measures, therapies are designed to prevent and cure the specific needs of a particular person or group of people), but individuals Sexual chemistry in everyone is not mentioned, which is hard to believe, ”he said.
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